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European Federation of Corrosion (EFC) Series

A series of reports and state-of-the-art reviews published for the European Federation of Corrosion by Maney Publishing and Woodhead Publishing on behalf of The Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining.   
ISSN 1354-5116

 

NEW!
Stress Corrosion Cracking of Nickel Based Alloys in Water Cooled Nuclear Reactors, 1st Edition: The Coriou Effect (EFC 67)
Edited by Damien Féron and Roger W. Staehle
Authoritative and comprehensively reviewed by the EFC Working Party 4 on Nuclear Corrosion
Woodhead Publishing, 17 February 2016, 384 pages, Print Book ISBN: 9780081000496

Stress Corrosion Cracking of Nickel Based Alloys in Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors: The Coriou Effect presents the latest information on brittle failure of metals in corrosive chemical environments under the influence of tensile stresses.
Nickel alloys are more resistant to SCC as well as high temperatures and have been widely used in more challenging environments such as nuclear power plants. However, these alloys can suffer SCC under certain conditions, resulting in component failure. A key figure in understanding the mechanisms of SCC in nickel alloys in water-cooled nuclear reactors is Henri Coriou of the CEA, France’s leading center for nuclear research. This book assesses his work in the context of the latest research on SCC in nickel alloys in nuclear power plants.
(online ordering)


Understanding Biocorrosion: Fundamentals and Applications (EFC 66)
Edited by T Liengren, Statoil ASA, Norway, D Féron, CEA Saclay, France, R Basséguy, CNRS Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, France and I Beech, University of Oklahoma, USA on behalf of Working Party 10 on Microbial Corrosion.
Woodhead Publishing, November 2014, 446 pages, hardback, ISBN-13: 978 1 78242 120 7

Biocorrosion refers to corrosion influenced by bacteria adhering to surfaces in biofilms. Biocorrosion is a major problem in areas such as cooling systems and marine structures where biofilms can develop. Based on the course material that was presented during BIOCOR Summer School "Understanding Biocorrosion: Fundamentals and Applications" in July 2011 at the University of Portsmouth, School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Science this book summarises key recent research in this subject.  Part one looks at theories of biocorrosion and measurement techniques. Part two discusses how bacteria and biofilms result in biocorrosion. The final part of the book includes case studies of biocorrosion in areas as diverse as buildings, fuels, marine environments and cooling systems.
(online ordering)

 

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts  (EFC 65)
Edited by P Dillmann, CNRS/CEA, France, D Watkinson, Cardiff University, UK, E Angelini, Politecnico di Torino, Italy and A Adriaens, Ghent University, Belgium
Woodhead Publishing, July 2013, 640 pages, hardback, ISBN-13: 978 1 78242 154 2

The conservation of metallic archaeological and historic artefacts is a major challenge whether they are ancient bronzes or relics of our more recent industrial past. Based on the work of Working Party 21 Corrosion of Archaeological and Historical Artefacts within the European Federation of Corrosion (EFC), this important book summarises key recent research on analytical techniques, understanding corrosion processes and preventing the corrosion of cultural heritage metallic artefacts.
After an introductory part on some of the key issues in this area, part two reviews the range of analytical techniques for measuring and analysing corrosion processes, including time resolved spectroelectrochemistry, voltammetry and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Part three reviews different types of corrosion processes for a range of artefacts, whilst part four discusses on-site monitoring techniques. The final part of the book summaries a range of conservation techniques and strategies to conserve cultural heritage metallic artefacts.
Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts is an important reference for all those involved in archaeology and conservation, including governments, museums as well as those undertaking research in archaeology and corrosion science.

 

Recommended practice for corrosion management of pipelines in oil and gas production and transportation  (EFC 64)
Edited by  B. Kermani and T. Chevrot
Maney Publishing, February 2012, 88pp paperback, ISBN: 978 1 907975 33 2

Pipeline integrity is key to maintaining operational success, safety and security, and minimising harm to the environment. Corrosion is a dominant contributory factor to failures, leaks and integrity threat in pipelines. Therefore, its optimum control within an integrity management framework is paramount for the cost effective design of facilities and ensuring continued, uninterrupted and safe operations within the expected design life.
This recommended practice (RP) is a compendium of current best practices and state of the art knowledge by major operators, engineering contractors and service companies involved in hydrocarbon production and transportation. The RP incorporates some minimum operational requirements and practices to ensure that when managing corrosion in pipelines, fundamental principles are followed. It covers management of corrosion for pipelines carrying hydrocarbons, injection water and/or produced water from design to decommissioning. It is structured to follow the logical steps of a basic corrosion management process and makes references to relevant and available international standards and/or recommended practices. It is intended for use by personnel from the petroleum industry having knowledge of corrosion and materials.
The aim of this RP is to provide a key reference document for engineers, suppliers and contractors working in the oil and gas industry, paving the way for corrosion free operation of pipelines with the ultimate goal of improving safety, security and minimising the impact on the environment.
 

The Corrosion Performance of Metals for the Marine Environment: A Basic Guide  (EFC 63)
Editor-in-Chief:  R. Francis and C. Powell
Maney Publishing, March 2012, paperback, ISBN: 978 1 907975 58 5

Scientists and engineers have been studying and recording marine corrosion, its effects and the solutions for over 60 years. Many of these experiences have been written down, but not always in accessible places. Marine corrosion failures tend to recur in cycles as one group of engineers ages and retires and a younger generation takes over. Clearly, not all the experiences of senior engineers have been passed on. This has become more acute in the last ten years or so with early retirements and reduced manning, leaving even less time to educate new engineers.
This book was envisioned and created as a way of encouraging engineers new to the marine environment, and those just wanting to update their knowledge, to take advantage of the many years of accumulated experience with corrosion of metals in marine environments in a quick and concise manner.
It is designed to encourage regular reference, avoiding complicated technicalities and has been instigated and supported by many of the members of WP9 (Marine Corrosion) of the EFC (European Federation of Corrosion) and STG44 (Marine Corrosion) of NACE International.
Steels, stainless steels, as well as alloys of copper, nickel, aluminium and titanium are covered within each section providing a wealth of information. Applications, commonly used alloy compositions, mechanical properties and the types of corrosion that the alloy groups are susceptible to are all described. It is intended that, armed with this knowledge, optimum service performance and corrosion resistance can be achieved from each alloy system. Few marine systems or structures are made of one type of alloy and so the concluding section provides an explanation of galvanic corrosion in seawater and how each alloy group behaves when coupled to others. It also discusses common solutions to avoid galvanic corrosion.
Chapters include: (1) Introduction, (2) Iron and Carbon Steel, (3) Stainless Steel, (4) Copper Alloys, (5) Nickel Alloys, (6) Aluminium Alloys, (7) Titanium Alloys, (8) Galvanic Corrosion
Links for direct orders:
Europe: http://www.oxbowbooks.com/oxbow/the-corrosion-performance-of-metals-for-the-marine-environment.html 
America: http://www.oxbowbooks.com/dbbc/the-corrosion-performance-of-metals-for-the-marine-environment.html

Testing Tribocorrosion of Passivating Materials Supporting Research and Industrial Innovation: Handbook (EFC 62)
Edited by J.-P. Celis and P. Ponthiaux
Maney Publishing, August 2011, 216pp hardback, ISBN: 978 1 907625 20 2

This first edition of Testing Tribocorrosion of Passivating Materials Supporting Research and Industrial Innovation: A Handbook treats in a clear, concise, and practical manner an important material degradation and protection matter. It is designed as a handbook and provides a well structured approach of the basics needed to investigate the tribocorrosion behavior of passivating materials, and to conduct in a correct way a laboratory investigation on it. It provides answers on practical and theoretical approaches of tribocorrosion phenomena to engineers and medical persons involved with material assemblies subjected to aggressive environmental and mechanical conditions. For academic researchers it is a pertinent tool assisting them in how they can perform a tribocorrosion investigation and obtain results that are correctly interpreted and can be exchanged. Different parts of the book are illustrated with practical examples.
This handbook is truly an indispensable guide for every professional who comes into contact with the complex material degradation and protection processes that take place under combined corrosion and wear conditions. Fields of interest include: transportation (aeronautics, maritime, rail, automotive), medical implants (orthopaedics, dentistry), biochemistry, food production, energy production, and machining.
The coordination of this handbook writing was done by Professor Jean-Pierre Celis (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium) and Professor Pierre Ponthiaux (Ecole Centrale Paris, France) assisted by twelve European experts who contributed jointly to the nine chapters of this handbook. Main topics dealt with are tribocorrosion phenomena in medical and industrial sectors, depassivation and repassivation phenomena, impact on synergism in tribocorrosion, specific testing techniques, coupling tribology-to-corrosion, design of a testing protocol, and normalisation.


Inter-Laboratory Study on Electrochemical Methods for the Characterization of CoCrMo Biomedical Alloys in Simulated Body Fluids
(EFC 61)

Edited by A. Igual Munoz and S. Mischler
Maney Publishing, March 2011, 128pp paperback, ISBN: 978 1 907625 00 8

All metals and alloys are subject to corrosion when in contact with body fluid due to the presence of chloride ions and oxygen. Although the extent of corrosion is low because of the passive surface films usually present on surgical implants it has clinical consequences and there is a need for a better understanding of the process. An inter-laboratory study involving 15 laboratories from Europe and Japan has been undertaken under the auspices of the European Cooperation on Science and Technology (COST) 533 Project: Materials for Improved Wear Resistance of Total Artificial Joints. The aim of this work, which is being conducted with the support of EFC Working Party 18 on Tribocorrosion, is to evaluate the reproducibility of the electrochemical test methods currently used to study the corrosion of biomaterials.
A 65 % Co, 28 % Cr, 6 % Mo alloy was used for the collaborative investigation. Generally good qualitative agreement was obtained between the various participants. However, an important outcome of the study was that the present scientific understanding of CoCrMo corrosion is not sufficient to design electrochemical experiments for the reliable quantitative determination of corrosion rates in biological fluids. This important outcome highlights the need for improved electrochemical test methods, especially with regard to surface preparation, chemical and electrochemical pre-conditioning, solution aeration and data extraction. The book will be of great interest to everyone involved in the determination of potentiodynamic polarisation curves and electrochemical impedance spectra.
 

Methodology of Crevice Corrosion Testing for Stainless Steels in Natural and Treated Seawaters (EFC 60)
Edited by U. Kivisäkk, B. Espelid and D. Féron
Maney Publishing, August 2010, Hardback, 160 pages, ISBN: 978 1 906540 99 9

Crevice corrosion in chloride-containing environments, particularly sea water, poses a serious threat to the integrity of stainless steels and has been responsible for many failures. The need for a reliable test method to measure the susceptibility of passive metals to crevice corrosion in sea water has been addressed recently in a major European Programme, CREVCORR. This work was coordinated by Bård Espelid of DNV (Norway) and involved collaboration between ten different companies in six European countries. Many members of EFC Working Party 9 (Marine Corrosion) participated in the work. The first nine chapters of the book describe the development of the new crevice corrosion test method for plate and tubular materials and its application to a number of austenitic, ferritic and duplex stainless steels. A key aim was to develop a crevice corrosion test procedure where the biological activity and oxidation capacity of natural and treated sea waters are simulated electrochemically. Another important aspect of the work was to formulate a new synthetic sea water capable of simulating the corrosiveness of natural and treated sea waters, including the effects of the bio-films that can form in natural waters. The final chapter presents the results of two large collaborative test programmes involving a total of 19 laboratories in eight countries worldwide. These involved tests in natural and synthetic sea waters to evaluate the new crevice test and synthetic sea water. The book will be of value to scientists and engineers engaged in the selection of stainless steels for applications in sea water and other chlorinated natural environments.


Sulphur-Assisted Corrosion in Nuclear Disposal Systems (EFC 59)
Edited by B. Kursten, D. Feron, and F. Druyts
Maney Publishing, August 2011, 192pp hardback, ISBN: 978 1 907975 17 2

In the different disposal concepts for high-level nuclear waste, corrosion of the metallic barriers and in particular the overpack/container is a major issue. It is imperative for performance assessment to predict the lifetime of these containers. In the lifetime prediction of metallic barriers for the disposal of high level nuclear waste (HLW) or of spent fuel, the presence of (reduced) sulphur species is an issue of growing importance, as the sulphur species are involved in localised corrosion phenomena.
The international workshop on Sulphur-Assisted Corrosion in Nuclear Waste Disposal Systems (SACNUC2008) aimed to provide an exchange of information on the influence of sulphur species on the corrosion of metallic barriers. This workshop was a co-organisation of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK•CEN, and the Belgian Agency for the Management of Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, ONDRAF/NIRAS, under the auspices of the European Federation of Corrosion (EFC event N° 311).
The proceedings are divided into five chapters: Chapter 1 provides a general overview of the disposal concepts of nuclear waste and the role of corrosion. Chapter 2 explains the mechanism of sulphur-induced corrosion processes. This chapter also contains information from outside the nuclear disposal field in which sulphur is known to act as a detrimental factor (e.g. oil and gas industry). Chapter 3 addresses the role of microbial processes in sulphur-assisted corrosion. Chapter 4 covers the modelling of sulphide-assisted corrosion. Chapter 5 is devoted to a panel discussion aiming to identify open issues in the investigation of sulphur-assisted corrosion phenomena and how to incorporate these in robust lifetime prediction of metallic barriers.


Self-Healing Properties of New Surface Treatments (EFC 58)
Edited by L. Fedrizzi , W. Fürbeth, F. Montemor
Maney Publishing, March 2011, 320pp hardback, ISBN: 978 1 906540 36 4

All branches of industry have, for many decades, utilised organic coatings with active pigments. In most cases the pigments have included zinc dust, red lead oxide or chromates, the protective mechanisms of which are well understood. However, the use of lead and chromate-based coatings is no longer permitted, due mainly to their toxic and carcinogenic characteristics, respectively. This has stimulated much interest in the development of new environmentally-friendly coatings with active pigments that convey "self-healing" characteristics. The use of advanced primers containing "smart" self-healing pigments with up to four cooperative effects aims to provide enhanced corrosion resistance for steel or aluminium structures.
This new publication was motivated by the highly successful workshop on self-healing coatings held on 12 September 2007 at the EFC's annual EUROCORR conference in Freiburg. It includes sixteen contributions, some of which were selected from the proceedings of the workshop (often in extended form) together with a number of specially invited articles and reviews.
Among the coatings discussed are: organosilane films filled with nanoparticles and corrosion inhibitors; nanoparticle-containing polyaniline films; pyrrole-based silane primers; polypyrrole/aluminium flake hybrid pigments; ZrO2 sol-gel films; cerium-containing silica methacrylate sol-gel coatings, and many others.
 

Protective Systems for High Temperature Applications - From Theory to Industrial Implementation (EFC 57)
Edited by M. Schütze
Maney Publishing, March 2011, 432pp hardback, ISBN: 978 1 906540 35 7

Recent initiatives and developments in high temperature technology aim at the exploitation of fuel end-processes at the edge of present materials capabilities, driving service temperatures higher and operating within ever more aggressive environmental conditions. The major driving force behind this trend is increased efficiencies and further growing efforts in environmental protection. The key to reliable operation of components for sufficiently long service periods to a large extent lies in the high temperature properties of the materials used, with high temperature corrosion resistance as the major life and performance-limiting factor. As conventional alloy design invariably leads to a compromise between mechanical strength and corrosion resistance, industry has turned to coatings to provide improved materials performance.
Consequently there is extensive worldwide activity to develop high performance protective coating systems, to prevent or minimise damage by corrosion, as well as by abrasion, wear and erosion at elevated temperature. Many of these systems (which may consist of surface modified bulk materials or genuine coating systems and in some cases also of special alloy approaches) are based on systematic development starting from present theoretical understanding, including laboratory data, and ending up in tailor-made solutions for industrial applications.
The present volume features the selected proceedings of an EFC Workshop held in Frankfurt on October 12-13 2006 to review the state-of-the-art in this field, addressing both theory and practice. The thirty-two contributions cover the following topics: aggressive combustion environments; steam environments; catalytic converters; gas turbines; oxidation and corrosion protection and gas turbines; thermal protection.

Corrosion Monitoring in Nuclear Systems (EFC 56)
Edited by S. Ritter and A. Molander
Maney Publishing, August 2010, Hardback, 280 pages, ISBN: 978 1 906540 98 2

Corrosion remains one of the key issues affecting the performance and availability of nuclear power plants. Therefore, reliable in-plant corrosion monitoring methods are essential both for the future operation of existing plants and to ensure the safety of future nuclear waste disposal systems. In two parts, this book was stimulated by a workshop organised by EFC Working Party 4 on Nuclear Corrosion and the European Cooperative Group on Corrosion Monitoring of Nuclear Materials (EGC-COMON). The first part deals mainly with research into the detection of stress corrosion crack initiation in nuclear power plant environments (essentially high temperature water at 300 °C) by various methods, particularly the electrochemical noise technique but also including the electrochemical impedance, acoustic emission and direct current potential drop methods. The second part addresses the goal to develop in-situ techniques and includes examples of the application of electrochemical corrosion potential monitoring. This book will be of particular interest to scientists and engineers concerned with the mitigation of corrosion in nuclear power plants and the long-term storage of radioactive waste.
 

Corrosion under insulation (CUI) guidelines (EFC 55), 2nd Edition
Edited by S. Winnik
Woodhead Publishing, 27 November 2015, 162pp, Print Book ISBN: 9780081007143, eBook ISBN: 9780081007396

  • Revised and fully updated technical guidance on managing CUI provided by EFC Working Parties WP13 and WP 15
  • Contributions from a number of European refining, petrochemical and offshore companies
  • Extensive appendices that provide additional practical guidance on the implementation of corrosion-under-insulation best practice, collected practical expertise and case studies

Corrosion under insulation (CUI) refers to the external corrosion of piping and vessels that occurs underneath externally clad/jacketed insulation as a result of the penetration of water. By its very nature CUI tends to remain undetected until the insulation and cladding/jacketing is removed to allow inspection or when leaks occur. CUI is a common problem shared by the refining, petrochemical, power, industrial, onshore and offshore industries.
The European Federation of Corrosion (EFC) Working Parties WP13 and WP15 have worked to provide guidelines on managing CUI together with a number of major European refining, petrochemical and offshore companies including BP, Chevron-Texaco, Conoco-Phillips, ENI, Exxon-Mobil, IFP, MOL, Scanraff, Statoil, Shell, Total and Borealis. The guidelines within this document are intended for use on all plants and installations that contain insulated vessels, piping and equipment. The guidelines cover a risk-based inspection methodology for CUI, inspection techniques (including non-destructive evaluation methods) and recommended best practice for mitigating CUI, including design of plant and equipment, coatings and the use of thermal spray techniques, types of insulation, cladding/jacketing materials and protection guards. The guidelines also include case studies.
(online ordering)
 

Innovative pre-treatment techniques to prevent corrosion of metallic surfaces (EFC 54)
Edited by L. Fedrizzi, H. Terryn and A. Simoes
Woodhead Publishing, August 2007, 248pp hardback, ISBN 978 1 84569 365 7

There has long been a need for effective pre-treatment techniques to prevent corrosion of metallic surfaces. This important volume discusses key research on the development of pre-treatment techniques for a range of metals. Chapters review various coatings and preparation methods for aluminium and aluminium alloys such as silane films, sol-gel coatings and magnesium-rich primers. Further chapters discuss the pre-treatment methods for steel, copper and magnesium alloys. The book also assesses methods for monitoring the effectiveness of pre-treatments, covering dissolution-precipitation mechanisms and their electrochemical behaviour.
Innovative pre-treatment techniques to prevent corrosion of metallic surfaces will be a valuable reference for all those concerned with corrosion problems and the use of pre-treatment techniques in the coatings industry.

 
Standardisation of thermal cycling exposure testing (EFC 53)
Edited by M. Schütze and M. Malessa
Woodhead Publishing, July 2007, 296pp hardback, ISBN 978 1 84569 273 5

The thermal cyclic oxidation test has become one of the most widely accepted ways of measuring high temperature corrosion. There has long been a need for an agreed code of practice with standardised methods and procedures to ensure both the comparability and reliability of the results obtained. Based on an EU project, 'Cyclic oxidation testing - development of a code of practice for the characterisation of high temperature materials performance' (COTEST), this volume provides the essential background to an appropriate code of practice.
The first part of the book reviews the range of existing test procedures. Part 2 summarises research on the influence of various test parameters on thermal cycling oxidation behaviour, including both long dwell and short dwell thermal cycling oxidation. The third and final part of the book describes the resulting code of practice which is being considered by the ISO/TC 156 Working Group 13 responsible for an appropriate international standard. This important book will be a standard reference for all those conducting thermal cycling oxidation testing or assessing its implications in such sectors as the power industry.
 

Progress in Corrosion - The First 50 Years of the EFC (EFC 52)
Edited by P. McIntyre and J. Vogelsang
Maney Publishing, September 2009, Hardback, 240 pages, ISBN: 978 1 906540 34 0

With over thirty member societies in twenty-four different countries, the European Federation of Corrosion (EFC) is one of the world's largest corrosion organisations. Founded in 1955, it recently celebrated its fiftieth anniversary. To mark the event, it was proposed that the EFC Working Parties, each of which addresses a clearly defined aspect of corrosion (or its mitigation), should be invited to contribute to a special publication. Thirteen current and past chairpersons responded to this challenge and each, in their own way, has summarised progress in their particular area of interest. The main focus of these contributions is on developments during the first fifty years of existence of the EFC and, in particular, on the contributions made by its working parties.
The topics covered include: Corrosion Inhibitors; High Temperature Corrosion; Nuclear Corrosion; Corrosion Education; Methods of Corrosion Testing; Marine Corrosion; Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion; Corrosion in Concrete; Corrosion in Oil and Gas Production; Corrosion Control by Coatings; Corrosion Management in Refineries; Cathodic Protection; Corrosion in Automotive Structures.
In addition, the book features an introductory overview of the Federation's history by the EFC Scientific Secretary.

Corrosion issues in light water reactors: Stress corrosion cracking (EFC 51) 
Edited by D. Féron and J.-M. Olive
Woodhead Publishing, June 2007, 368pp hardback, ISBN 978 1 84569 242 1

Stress corrosion cracking is a major problem in light water nuclear reactors, whether pressurised water reactors (PWRs) or boiling water reactors (BWRs). The nuclear industry needs to be able to predict the service life of these power plants and develop appropriate maintenance and repair practices to ensure safe long term operation. This important book sums up key recent research on corrosion in light water reactors and its practical applications.
The book is divided into four parts. It begins with an overview of materials degradation due to stress corrosion, corrosion potential monitoring and passivation. Part 2 summarises research on susceptibility of materials to stress corrosion cracking and the ways it can be initiated. The third part of the book considers stress corrosion crack propagation processes whilst the final part includes practical case studies of corrosion in particular plants. The book reviews corrosion in a range of materials such as low alloy steels, stainless steels and nickel-based alloys.
 
Corrosion behaviour and protection of copper and aluminium alloys in seawater
(EFC 50)
Edited by D. Féron
Woodhead Publishing, May 2007, 220pp hardback, ISBN 978 1 84569 241 4

Copper and aluminium alloys are widely used in marine engineering in areas such as pipelines, storage tanks, ships' hulls and cladding for offshore structures. This important book reviews key factors affecting the corrosion and service life of these materials in the marine environment. The book is divided into five parts, with Part 1 reviewing key aspects of the corrosion behaviour of both these alloys. Part 2 discusses the use of copper and copper-nickel alloys in seawater, whilst Parts 3 and 4 cover aluminium bronzes and alloys. The final section of the book covers the use of aluminium-based materials as anodes for the cathodic protection of marine structures.
Corrosion behaviour and protection of copper and aluminium alloys in seawater will be an important reference for marine engineers concerned with the corrosion and service life of these materials.
 
Electrochemistry in light water reactors (EFC 49)

Reference electrodes, measurement, corrosion and tribocorrosion issues
Edited by R.-W. Bosch, D. Féron and J.-P. Celis
Woodhead Publishing, April 2007, 240pp hardback, ISBN  978 1 84569 240 7 (book),  ISBN  978 1 84569 240 2 (e-book)
 
There has long been a need for effective methods of measuring corrosion within light water nuclear reactors. This important volume discusses key issues surrounding the development of high temperature reference electrodes and other electrochemical techniques. The book is divided into three parts with Part 1 reviewing the latest developments in the use of reference electrode technology in both pressurised water and boiling water reactors. Parts 2 and 3 cover different types of corrosion and tribocorrosion and ways they can be measured using such techniques as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Topics covered across the book include in-pile testing, modelling techniques and the tribocorrosion behaviour of stainless steel under reactor conditions.
Electrochemistry in light water reactors will be a valuable reference for all those concerned with corrosion problems in this key technology for the power industry.

Corrosion of metallic heritage artefacts (EFC 48)
Investigation, conservation and prediction for long-term behaviour
Edited by P. Dillmann, G. Béranger, P. Piccardo and H. Matthiesen
Woodhead Publishing, March 2007, 416pp hardback, ISBN 978 1 84569 239 1(book), ISBN 978 1 84569 301 5 (e-book)

Understanding long term corrosion processes is critical in many areas, including archaeology and conservation. This important book reviews key themes such as the processes underlying corrosion over long periods, how corrosion rates can be measured and materials conserved.
After an overview of the study and conservation of metal archaeological artefacts, a group of chapters reviews long term corrosion in metals such as steel, iron and bronze. Other chapters review the impact of environmental factors on corrosion rates. The book also considers instrumental techniques for measuring corrosion such as electrochemistry and scanning electron microscopy, as well as ways of modelling corrosion processes. There is also coverage of the effectiveness of corrosion inhibitors.
With its distinguished editors and contributors, Corrosion of metallic heritage artefacts improves our understanding of long term corrosion and its effects. It provides a valuable reference for those involved in archaeology and conservation, as well as those dealing with the long term storage of nuclear and other waste.

Novel approaches to improving high temperature corrosion resistance (EFC 47)
Edited by M. Schütze and W. Quadakkers
Woodhead Publishing, May 2008, 648pp hardback, ISBN 978 1 84569 238 1

High-temperature corrosion is a major problem affecting sectors such as the power generation, aerospace and metal-working industries. This book summarises a wide range of research on ways of dealing with this important problem. The first part of the book reviews ways of modifying alloys to improve high-temperature corrosion resistance. The second part discusses surface treatments such as pre-treatments and coatings. The third part of the book summarises research on testing for high-temperature corrosion resistance and the development of common testing standards. It also reviews research on the behaviour of alloys in a wide range of service conditions such as furnace and boiler environments. The final part of the book discusses ways of modelling high-temperature corrosion processes to improve material performance and service life.
 

Amine unit corrosion in refineries (EFC 46)
J.D. Harston and F. Ropital
Woodhead Publishing, April 2007, 56pp paperback, ISBN 978 1 84569 237 7 (book), ISBN 978 1 84569 323 7 (e-book)

The corrosion of carbon steels in amine units used for gas treatment in refining operations is a major problem for the petrochemical industry. Maximising amine unit reliability, together with improving throughput, circulation and treatment capacity, requires more effective ways of measuring and predicting corrosion rates. However, there has been a lack of data on corrosion. This valuable report helps to remedy this lack of information by summarising findings from over 30 plants. It covers such amine types as Methyl Diethanolamine (MDEA), Diethanolamine (DEA), Monoethanolamine (MEA) and Di-isopropanolamine (DIPA), and makes recommendations on materials and process parameters to maximise amine unit efficiency and reliability.


Local probe techniques for corrosion research: (EFC 45)
Edited by R. Oltra, V. Maurice, R. Akid and P. Marcus
Woodhead Publishing, February 2007, 208pp hardback, ISBN 978 1 84569 236 0 (book), ISBN 978 1 84569 323 7 (e-book

The effective investigation of corrosion requires the use of methods that can probe material surfaces at the atomic or molecular level and can be used in situ. This important collection reviews the range of techniques available and how they can be used to analyse different types of corrosion.
A number of chapters discuss the use of scanning probe microscopy techniques such as electrochemical scanning tunnelling microscopy and atomic force microscopy (EC-STM and EC-AFM). Other chapters analyse local electrochemical techniques such as scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), scanning vibrating electrode techniques (SVET), scanning droplet and scanning kelvin probe microscopy (SKFM), as well as microraman spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical imaging. The book reviews the application of these techniques in practice to various metals and types of coating as well as different kinds of corrosion.

 
The use of electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (EC-STM) in corrosion analysis (EFC 44)
Reference material and procedural guidelines
R. Lindström, V. Maurice, L.H. Klein and P. Marcus
Woodhead Publishing, November 2006, 48pp paperback, ISBN  978 1 84569 235 3
 
The European Federation of Corrosion's Working Party on Surface Science and the Mechanisms of Corrosion and Protection (EFC WP6) has defined, as one of its objectives, the development of a reference material and reference guidelines for the application of electrochemical scanning tunnelling microscopy (EC-STM) in corrosion science. The use of EC-STM to study the relationship between surface structure and surface reactivity in situ on electrodes in contact with an electrolyte is of major importance in corrosion research. This report describes the reference material and procedural guidelines required to use this technique effectively. STM-users are instructed how to obtain high resolution data on a carefully prepared copper single-crystal surface.
  

The electrochemistry and characteristics of embeddable reference electrodes for concrete structural engineering (EFC 43)
Roar Myrdal
Woodhead Publishing, November 2006, 40pp paperback, ISBN 978 1 84569 234 6
  
Using reference electrodes to monitor the electrochemeical potential of steel reinforcement in concrete is a well-established technique for assessing the severity of corrosion and for controlling cathotic protection systems. This report gives a state-of-the-art overview of the electrochemical and physical characteristics and performance of embeddable reference electrodes for concrete, and the method used for installing them.

 
Corrosion in refineries (EFC 42)
J. Harston
Woodhead Publishing, July 2007, 256 pages, ISBN 978 1 84569 233 9
 
Corrosion in ageing refinery plant presents a serious safety hazard. This important book summarises key research into corrosion processes in refinery equipment, how it can be measured and controlled. The book reviews factors affecting corrosion such as carburisation and metal dusting as well as corrosion in steel and other materials used in refinery technology. It considers corrosion in a range of refinery equipment such as storage tanks, HF alkylation units, sour water strippers and insulated units. Other chapters discuss ways of testing for corrosion and cracking in refineries together with integrity and life cycle assessment techniques. There is also coverage of ways of trouble-shooting corrosion problems and preventative measures such as coating systems.


Corrosion by carbon and nitrogen - Metal dusting, carburisation and nitridation (EFC 41)

M. Schuetze, H. Grabke
Woodhead Publishing, June 2007, 332 pp hardback, ISBN 978 1 84569 232 2

Metal dusting is a form of corrosion involving the disintegration of metals and alloys into a dust of graphite and metal particles when exposed to a carburizing atmosphere. This important book reviews the factors affecting metal dusting and how it can be prevented in sectors such as the chemical and petrochemical industries and in the direct reduction of iron ores. It also considers the related corrosion phenomena of carburization and nitridation.
After an introductory chapter setting out the key processes involved in metal dusting, the book reviews how this corrosion process affects a range of metals such as iron and steel, as well as nickel-based and chromium-based high-temperature alloys. There are chapters on the effects of particular gas mixtures on the corrosion process and on the use of coatings to prevent metal dusting. Processes involved in carburization and nitridation are also described and discussed.


Control of Corrosion in Cooling waters (EFC 40)
Edited by J.D. Harston and F. Ropital
Maney Publishing, 2004, xvi + 94pp, ISBN 978 1 904350 347

The joint CEFRACOR-SCI commission 'Corrosion in the chemical industry' has undertaken the task of developing prevention tools for chemical engineers. A number of working groups have been set up to treat subjects of general interest. This treatise on the control of corrosion problems in cooling waters froms part of this work.


The use of Corrosion Inhibitors in Oil and Gas Production (EFC 39)
Edited by J.W. Palmer, W. Hedges and J.L. Dawson
Maney Publishing, 2004, xvi + 112pp, ISBN 978 1 904350 330

This practical industry-orientated guide has been compiled to meet the needs of personnel employed by operators, design engineers, contractors and chemical suppliers working in the oil and gas industry. Both technical and management issues are addressed and key points are provided at the end of each chapter to aid in the assimilation of the many and varied aspects that contribute to successful corrosion inhibition.
  

Corrosion of reinforcement in concrete (EFC 38)
Mechanisms, monitoring, inhibitors and rehabilitation techniques
Edited by M. Raupach, B. Elsener, R. Polder and J. Mietz
Woodhead Publishing, November 2006, 336pp, ISBN 978 1 84569 201 0

Given the widespread use of reinforced concrete in infrastructure, understanding hte corrosion of this material is of major importance. This book book summarises some of the most significant research in this area and its implications.
The book begins by reviewing findings from various experiments designed to test the corrosion rate of metals induced by a variety of factors. Later chapters discuss techniques for monitoring and testing for corrosion. The book concludes by assessing important methods of prediction, including corrosion inhibitors, protective coatings and electrochemical methods for protection, together with rehabilitation procedures for susceptible structures.


Test Methods for Assessing the Susceptibility of Prestressing Steels to Hydrogen Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking (EFC 37)
by B. Isecke
Maney Publishing, 2004, Paperback 56pp, ISBN 978 1 904350 240

The high-strength pre-stressing steels used to strengthen concrete structures may be susceptible to hydrogen-induced stress corrosion cracking when exposed to corrosive conditions during service. This form of attack can lead to the sudden failure of pre-stressed concrete structures without forewarning, posing a real risk of death or severe injury to those in the vicinity. In order to ensure that the steels used for pre-stressed concrete possess sufficient resistance to hydrogen-induced stress corrosion cracking, a number of test methods have been developed over the past twenty-five years. This report begins by outlining the requirements and properties of pre-stressing steels before reviewing the fundamental processes by which crack initiation and propagation can occur in corrosive environments. Following a general overview of the various test methods available for assessing stress corrosion cracking tendencies, attention is focused on the particular case of test methods for hydrogen-induced stress corrosion cracking of pre-stressing steels. The advantages and disadvantages of the most frequently used test methods are discussed and the importance of close simulation of the environmental and loading conditions encountered in service is emphasised. The publication will be of value to all those working on pre-stressing steels and pre-stressed concrete structures.


Prediction of Long Term Corrosion Behaviour in Nuclear Waste Systems (EFC 36)
Edited by Damien Féron and Digby D. Macdonald
Maney Publishing, 2003, Hardback  538 pp, ISBN 978 1 902653 877

EFC 36, from EFC WP4 on Nuclear Corrosion, contains the proceedings of a workshop on prediction of long term corrosion behaviour in nuclear waste systems held in Cadarache, France, on 26-29 November 2001. High level nuclear waste must be isolated from the ecosphere for approximately 10,000 years. For the last 10 years, programmes on the long-term corrosion resistance of containers for such waste have assumed increasing importance. The 36 chapters in this volume include contributions from experts in 8 different countries. These approach the problem not only through the use of corrosion tests, but also by the development of deterministic and empirical models that are necessary to extrapolate the behaviour of candidate materials. One section is devoted to an analysis of the long-term corrosion of historical and archaeological artefacts, including the famous Delhi Pillar, a striking example of the effect that 1600 years of atmospheric exposure can have on a ferrous metal.


Corrosion Inhibitors for Steel in Concrete (EFC 35)
Maney Publishing, 2001, 80pp, ISBN 978 1 902653 488

This state of the art report describes in detail the different commercial inhibitors available for use in concrete and considers their mechanistic action together with experience from laboratory and field tests. The report also deals with the possible effects of inhibitors on concrete properties and with their long term efficiency.


Lifetime Modelling of High Temperature Corrosion Processes: Proceedings of an EFC Workshop 2001 (EFC 34)
Edited by M. Schütze, W.J. Quaddakers and J.R. Nicholls
Maney Publishing, 2001, 464pp, ISBN 978 1 902653 471

The present volume contains papers presented at a workshop held at DECHEMA in February 2001. The papers present results from recent research projects and thus provide a comprehensive survey of the present understanding of this technologically important topic. This book also contains papers from various projects in Europe and the USA.


Marine Corrosion of Stainless Steel (EFC 33)
Maney Publishing, 2001, 320pp, ISBN 978 1 861251 510

This book presents updated views of marine corrosion of stainless steels and covers the fields of materials selection, testing and experience, and protection and monitoring. Some of the papers are taken from the 1996 Workshop on Sea Water Corrosion.


Working Party Report on the Life Cycle Costing of Corrosion in the Oil and Gas Industry: a Guideline (EFC 32)
Edited by Phil Jackman
Maney Publishing, 2003, 64 pp, ISBN 978 1 902653 853

This book has been developed by EFC WP13 on Corrosion in Oil and Gas Production. It addresses the important subject of the analysis of life cycle cost of corrosion as it may be applied in the oil and gas industry. In doing so, reference is made to published standard ISO 15663 parts 1 to 3, which deal with life cycle costing in petroleum and natural gas industries but without the focus on corrosion of the new EFC Guideline. Separate sections deal with the compilation of corrosion-related cost data (including capital costs, operating costs, lost production costs and material residual value) and the way in which these can be used in assessing the life cycle cost of corrosion for new facilities. The Appendices give: examples of data recording forms for use in the design, construction, operating, maintenance and stand-by phases in the life of plant; formulae for the estimation of corrosion allowance costs; formulae for the calculation of life cycle costs for new facilities; a representative worked example of a life cycle cost analysis for an oil pipeline, and guidance on quantifying the consequences of risk in life cycle cost analysis.


Corrosion of Reinforcement in Concrete (EFC 31)
Edited by J. Mietz, R. Polder and B. Elsener
Maney Publishing, 2000, 160 pp, ISBN 978 1 861251 336

This volume in the European Federation of Corrosion series brings together the full papers presented in the successful session "Corrosion of Steel in Concrete" at EUROCORR '99 held in Aachen, Germany. The papers, grouped under the two headings "Corrosion Mechanisms and Corrosion Measurements" and "Corrosion Protection of Reinforced Concrete Structures" provide a bridge between theory and practice and will be of value to both scientists and engineers.


Survey of Literature on Crevice Corrosion (1979-1998) (EFC 30)
F. P. IJsseling
Maney Publishing, 2000, 220pp, ISBN 978 1 861251 251

Crevice corrosion is a complex and technically interesting corrosion mechanism but its commercial significance should not be ignored. This survey, the most complete overview on crevice corrosion available today, covers many alloys which can suffer crevice attack but focuses mainly on stainless steels. The survey covers mechanisms, test methods and results, practical experience, protective measures and monitoring.


Microbial Corrosion (EFC 29)
Papers from the 4th International EFC Workshop, Lisbon, Portugal, 1999
Edited by C.A.C. Sequeira
Maney Publishing, 2000, 384pp, ISBN 978 1 861251 114

The papers in this volume cover mechanisms of microbial corrosion, including stainless steel; biofilms, particularly the nature of these on copper surfaces both in hospital water systems and in sea water; microbially induced corrosion of restorative dental materials; the effects of bacteria on cathodic protection; biofilm monitoring on cooling water systems and the use of organic biocides; case histories covering such diverse topics as the deterioration of archeological stone and marble by lichens and algae, biocorrosion in drinking water, in underground sulphur mines and cooling water systems of petroleum refineries; and biodeterioration of sulphide ores and the bioleaching of Fe-Si alloys.


Electrochemical Approach to Selected Corrosion and Corrosion Control Studies (EFC 28)
Papers from the 50th International Society of Electrochemistry Meeting, Pavia, September 1999
Edited by P.L. Bonora and D. Deflorian
Maney Publishing, -2000, 384pp, ISBN 978 1 861251 107

The 26 papers in this volume cover five important aspects of electrochemical corrosion and protection research: inhibitors, organic coatings, inorganic coatings, passivity and evaluation of special environments


Cyclic Oxidation of High Temperature Materials (EFC 27)
Edited by M. Schütze and W.J. Quaddakkers
Maney Publishing, 1999, 496pp, ISBN 978 1 861251 008

Proceedings of a workshop organised by the European Federation of Corrosion, Frankfurt/Main, D, 1999, the papers review the current understanding of materials behaviour under cyclic oxidation and coverIsuch aspects as: oxidation and failure mechanisms under cyclic loading; test procedures and parameters influencing cyclic oxidation behaviour; long term behaviour and near service conditions; and the behaviour of coatings under cyclic oxidation.


Advances in Corrosion Control and Materials in Oil and Gas Production (EFC 26)
Edited by P.S. Jackman and L.M. Smith
Maney Publishing, 1999, 496pp, ISBN 978 1 861250 926

These papers from EURCORR '97 and EURCORR '98 deal with advances in the understanding of corrosion and performance of equipment in upstream oil and gas operations. The opening section includes two keynote papers on: the materials and corrosion view of wet gas transportation; and the modelling of low induced localised corrosion from critical hydrodynamic data and fracture mechanics data of CO 2 corrosion scales. The further 45 papers cover carbon and low alloy steels, martensitic stainless steels, corrosion resistant alloys, galvanic corrosion, corrosion inhibitors and other materials.


Corrosion of Reinforcement in Concrete: Monitoring, Prevention and Rehabilitation (EFC 25)
Papers from Eurocorr '97
Edited by J. Mietz, B. Elsener and R. Polder
Maney Publishing, 1998, 224pp, ISBN 978 1 861250 384

The results of research into, and application of, various prevention, protection and remedial methods are discussed, together with aspects of the understanding of the mechanisms of the processes that are involved. Experience in the field with the application of electrochemical methods for protection and restoration and procedures for monitoring the protection are described.


Electrochemical Rehabilitation Methods for Reinforced Concrete Structures (EFC 24)
Edited by J Mietz
Maney Publishing, 1998, 68pp, ISBN 978 1 861250 827

This is a state of the art report on two of the main electrochemical methods for the rehabilitation of reinforced concrete structures - electrochemical chloride extraction and electrochemical realkalisation. The principles, laboratory and field experience, effectiveness and long-term behaviour of the procedures are considered.


Aspects of Microbially Induced Corrosion (EFC 22)
Papers from EUROCORR '96 and the EFC Working Party  
Edited by D. Thierry
Maney Publishing, 1997, 176pp, ISBN 978 1 861250 506

This volume contains 11 chapters representing reports made in the MIC session at EUROCORR '96 together with a paper from the Working Party on the economics of MIC in relation to power station performance. Much attention is given to the currently important subject of biofilms, particularly on stainless steel in seawater. There are descriptions of the characterisation of biofilms and their effects. The volume concludes with an account of biological effects in power stations, the economic implications and prevention methods.


Corrosion-Deformation Interactions CDI '96 (EFC 21)
Edited by T Magnin
Maney Publishing, 1997 552pp ISBN 978 1 861250 483

This volume includes the majority of the papers presented at CDI '96. The four sections deal with CDI in aqueous solutions, hydrogen-plasticity interactions, oxidation-plasticity interactions and CDI in the nuclear industry. Represents the current state of knowledge of the behaviour of a wide range of engineering materials subjected to deformation in corrosive environments as well as presenting prevailing views of the failure mechanisms.


Organic and Inorganic Coatings for Corrosion Prevention - Research and Experience (EFC 20)
Edited by P.L. Bonora and L. Fedrizzi
Maney Publishing, 1997, 352pp, ISBN 978 1 861250 308

The volume contains 27 papers from the major sessions on coatings held during EUROCORR '96. Four main topic areas are covered: organic coatings, ceramic coatings, zinc coating and other metallic coatings. The various chapters describe recent experimental work and service experience as well as valuable reviews.


European Workshop on Seawater Corrosion of Stainless Steel - Mechanisms and Experiences (EFC 19)
Maney Publishing, 1996, 200pp, ISBN 978 1 861250 186

The volume contains papers presented at a workshop in 1995 organised by SINTEF Corrosion and Surface Technology (Trondheim) in co-operation with the EFC Working Parties on Marine Corrosion and Microbial Corrosion. Particular attention was given to biofilms, their causes, effects and prevention, as well as to the behaviour in seawater of high alloyed austenitic stainless steels including 6Mo, and super duplex stainless steels.


Corrosion Resistant Alloys for Oil and Gas Production: Guidance on General Requirements and Test Methods for H 2 S Service (EFC 17, 2nd Edition)
Maney Publishing, May 2002, 96pp, ISBN 978 1 902653  556

A revised and updated set of guidelines applicable to stainless steels, nickel alloys and titanium alloys covering: SSC/SCC test procedures; reference environments for SSC and SCC testing; guidance on autoclave testing of CRAs; procedures for testing CRAs exposed to sulphur and H 2 S.
 

Guidelines on Materials Requirements for Carbon and Low Alloy Steels for H 2 S-Containing Environments in Oil and Gas Production (EFC 16, 3rd Edition )
Edited by Svein Eliassen and Liane Smith
Maney Publishing, July 2009, 56pp paperback, ISBN 978 1 90654 033 3

This is a further revised and updated version of an EFC report on the possible types of H2 S cracking that can occur in an oilfield. It covers all items of equipment used, from the well to the export pipelines and also recommends test methods for evaluating materials performance. This is a key reference document for materials engineers and product suppliers working in the oil and gas industry


Microbial Corrosion (EFC 15)
Proceedings of the 3rd International EFC Workshop on Microbial Corrosion  (Working Party on Microbial Corrosion)
Edited by A.K. Tiller and C.A.C. Sequeira
Maney Publishing, 1994, 432pp, ISBN 978 0 901716 620

Thirty-three chapters cover the occurrence, mechanisms and prevention of microbial corrosion. Topics discussed include work on the microbial corrosion of copper at various centres in Europe, case studies with stainless steel, aluminium brass, carbon steels etc., and topics such as groundwater engineering and fuel tanks.


Guidelines for Methods of Testing and Research in High Temperature Corrosion (EFC 14)
(Working Group on Corrosion by Hot Gases and Combustion Products)
Edited by H.J. Grabke and D.B. Meadowcroft
Maney Publishing, 1995, 224pp, ISBN 978 0 901716 781

High temperature oxidation and corrosion cause great problems in power plants, petrochemical and chemical industries and in engines, and yet no standards exist for material testing for high temperature corrosion. The information and advice in this book makes it a milestone on the way to codes of practice and standards.


Modifications of Passive Films (EFC 12)
(Working Party on Surface Science and Mechanisms of Corrosion and Protection)
Maney Publishing, 1994, 368pp, ISBN 978 0 901716 521

The modification of passive films is a promising method of improving the corrosion resistance of metallic materials. As well as reviewing a wide spectrum of film modifications and their effects on passivity and to corrosion resistance, papers presented at this international symposium deal with chemical composition, chemical states and electronic properties of passive films.


Marine Corrosion of Stainless Steels: Chlorination and Microbial Aspects (EFC 10)
(Working Parties on Marine Corrosion & Microbial Corrosion)
Maney Publishing, 1993, 224pp, ISBN 978 0 901716 330

Contents include: aspects of marine corrosion and testing for seawater applications; experience with seawater chlorination on copper alloys and stainless steels; an intelligent probe for in-situ assessment of the susceptibility of hydrogen induced cracking of steel for offshore platform joints.


Microbiological Degradation of Materials and Methods of Protection (EFC 9)
(Working Party on Microbial Corrosion)
Maney Publishing, 1992, 88pp, ISBN 978 0 901716 026

This report is an English translation of the German Text Mikrobiologische Materialzerstörung und Materialschutz, published by DECHEMA in 1989, and now issued in English with the support of the Microbial Working Party. Contents: microbiological fundamentals; detection and identification of micro-organisms; microbially influenced deterioration of materials; protection of materials; education; summary of R&D needs.

 

Corrosion Problems Related to Nuclear Waste Disposal (EFC 7)
(Working Party on Nuclear Corrosion)
Maney Publishing, 1992, 64pp, ISBN 978 0 901716 323

Covers the corrosion related problems inherent in the various concepts of waste disposal which may result from different geological conditions of the host formations. Papers investigate the importance of engineered barriers; high strength corrosion resistant candidate nuclear waste containers; disposal of heat generating radioactive wastes in rock salt; advanced corrosion studies on packaging materials for high level waste containers in rock salt; carbon steel and copper canisters and hydrogen gas generation from iron corrosion in cementitious environments.


Corrosion Education Manual (EFC 6)
(Working Party on Corrosion Education)
Maney Publishing, 1992 ,48pp, ISBN 978 0 901716 316

A revised version of the second edition of this manual which appeared in 1974, this report provides information currently available in Europe for those whose responsibility it is to minimise the cost of corrosion.


Illustrated Case Histories of Marine Corrosion (EFC 5)
(Working Party on Marine Corrosion)
Maney Publishing, 1991, 129pp, ISBN 978 0 901462 862

Aims to provide engineers with an elementary review of cases of corrosion damage which may occur during marine service and advise on possible remedial action.


Guidelines for Electrochemical Corrosion Measurements (EFC 4)
(Working Party on Physicochemical Methods of Corrosion Measurement )
Maney Publishing, 1990, 64pp, ISBN 978 0 901462 879

This report covers the use, significance and limitations of various electrochemical corrosion test methods.
 

Please note that volumes 1, 2, 3, 8, 11, 13, 18 and 23 are now out of print.
 

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