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EFC Working Party 21: Corrosion of Archaeological and Historical Artefacts

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Publications of WP21 members


Generalities, books

* E. Angelini, V. Argyropoulos, Metals and Museums in the Mediterranean, Protecting, Preserving and Interpreting, A book edited by Vasilike Argyropoulos, with contributions by E. Angelini, D. Anglos,V. Argyropoulos, A. Çilingiroğlou, T. De Caro, C. Degrigny, V. Gouda, M.A. Harith, A. Hein, G.M. Ingo, A. Karydas and C. Ricucci, Forewords by W. El Saddik and P. Themelis, 2008, pp.  23-37,  ISBN 978-960-87753-8-1, TEI of Athens

* E. Angelini, S. Grassini, S. Corbellini, G.M. Ingo, T. De Caro, P. Plescia, C. Riccucci, A. Bianco, S. Agostini, Potentialities of XRF and EIS portable instruments for the characterisation of ancient artefacts, Applied Physics a-Materials Science & Processing, 83 (2006) 643-649.

* C. Degrigny, Electrochemical techniques in conservation: from transfer of knowledge to the development of new processes, Actualite Chimique, (2009) 33-37.

* C. Degrigny, Use of electrochemical techniques for the conservation of metal artefacts: a review, Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, 14 (2010) 353-361.

* C. Degrigny, G. Guibert, S. Ramseyer, G. Rapp, A. Tarchini, Use of E (corr) vs time plots for the qualitative analysis of metallic elements from scientific and technical objects: the SPAMT Test Project, Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, 14 (2010) 425-435.

* E. Rocca, F. Mirambet, The electrochemical techniques for the diagnosis and restoration treatments of technical and industrial heritage: three examples of metallic artefacts, Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, 14 (2010) 415-423.

* A. Adriaens, M. Dowsett, The Coordinated Use of Synchrotron Spectroelectrochemistry for Corrosion Studies on Heritage Metals, Accounts of Chemical Research, 43 (2010) 927-935.

*  V. Costa, K. Leyssens, A. Adriaens, N. Richard, F. Scholz, Electrochemistry reveals archaeological materials, Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, 14 (2010) 449-451.

Iron based metals

* F. Mirambet, S. Reguer, E. Rocca, S. Hollner, D. Testemale, A complementary set of electrochemical and X-ray synchrotron techniques to determine the passivation mechanism of iron treated in a new corrosion inhibitor solution specifically developed for the preservation of metallic artefacts, Applied Physics a-Materials Science & Processing, 99 (2010) 341-349.

* E. Cano, D.M. Bastidas, V. Argyropoulos, S. Fajardo, A. Siatou, J.M. Bastidas, C. Degrigny, Electrochemical characterization of organic coatings for protection of historic steel artefacts, Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, 14 (2010) 453-463.

* E. Guilminot, F. Dalard, C. Degrigny, Effect of phosphate concentration on the corrosion of iron in water - Polyethylene glycol mixtures, Corrosion, 61 (2005) 437-443.

* M.C. Bernard, S. Joiret, Understanding corrosion of ancient metals for the conservation of cultural heritage, Electrochimica Acta, 54 (2009) 5199-5205.

* H. Matthiesen, L.R. Hilbert, D.J. Gregory, The occurence and stability of siderite as a corrosion product on archaeological iron from a waterlogged environment, Studies in conservation, 48 (2003) 183-194.

* H. Matthiesen, L.R. Hilbert, D.J. Gregory, Siderite as a corrosion product on archaeological iron from a waterlogged environment, Studies in conservation, 48 (2003) 183-194.

* H. Matthiesen, E. Salomonsen, B. Sørensen, The use of radiography and GIS to assess the deterioration of archaeological iron objects from a water logged environment, journal of Archaeological Science, 31 (2004) 1451-1461.

* C. Rémazeilles, D. Neff, M. Saheb, E. Guilminot, K. Tran, J.A. Bourdoiseau, R. Sabot, M. Jeannin, H. Matthiesen, P. Dillmann, P. Refait, Microbiologically influenced corrosion of archaeological artefacts; characterisation of iron(II) sulphides by Raman spectroscopy, Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, (2010).

* D. Neff, M. Saheb, J. Monnier, S. Perrin, M. Descostes, V. L'Hostis, D. Crusset, A. Millard, P. Dillmann, A review of the archaeological analogue approaches to predict the long-term corrosion behaviour of carbon steel overpack and reinforced concrete structures in the French disposal systems, Journal of Nuclear Materials, 402 (2010) 196-205.

* J. Monnier, S. Reguer, D. Vantelon, P. Dillmann, D. Neff, I. Guillot, X-rays absorption study on medieval corrosion layers for the understanding of very long-term indoor atmospheric iron corrosion, Applied physics A, 99 (2010) 399-406.

* J. Monnier, D. Neff, S. Réguer, P. Dillmann, L. Bellot-Gurlet, E. Leroy, E. Foy, L. Legrand, I. Guillot, A corrosion study of the ferrous medieval reinforcement of the Amiens cathedral. Phase characterisation and localisation by various microprobes techniques, Corrosion Science, 52 (2010) 695-710.

* M. Saheb, D. Neff, P. Dillmann, H. Matthiesen, E. Foy, L. Bellot-Gurlet, Multisecular corrosion behaviour of low carbon steel in anoxic soils: Characterisation of corrosion system on archaeological artefacts, Materials and Corrosion, 60 (2009) 99-105.

* C. Rémazeilles, D. Neff, F. Kergourlay, E. Foy, E. Conforto, E. Guilminot, S. Reguer, P. Refait, P. Dillmann, Mechanisms of long-term anaerobic corrosion of iron archaeological artefacts in seawater, Corrosion Science, 51 (2009) 2932-2941.

* S. Reguer, F. Mirambet, E. Dooryhee, J.L. Hodeau, P. Dillmann, P. Lagarde, Structural evidence for the desalination of akaganeite in the preservation of iron archaeological objects, using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and absorption spectroscopy, Corrosion Science, 51 (2009) 2795-2802.

* V. L'Hostis, D. Neff, L. Bellot-Gurlet, P. Dillmann, Characterization of long-term corrosion of rebars embedded in concretes sampled on French historical buildings aged from 50 to 80 years, Materials and Corrosion, 60 (2009) 93-98.

* L. Bellot-Gurlet, D. Neff, S. Réguer, J. Monnier, M. Saheb, P. Dillmann, Raman Studies of Corrosion Layers Formed on Archaeological Irons in Various Media, Journal of Nano Research, 8 (2009) 147-156.

* W.-J. Chitty, P. Dillmann, V. L'Hostis, A. Millard, Long-term corrosion of rebars embedded in aerial and hydraulic binders - parametric study and first step of modelling, Corrosion Science, 50 (2008) 3047-3065.

* S. Reguer, P. Dillmann, F. Mirambet, J. Susini, P. Lagarde, Investigation of Cl corrosion products of iron archaeological artefacts using micro-focused synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy, Applied Physics a-Materials Science & Processing, 83 (2006) 189-193.

* D. Neff, P. Dillmann, L. Bellot-Gurlet, G. Béranger, Corrosion of iron archaeological artefacts in soil: characterisation of the corrosion system, Corrosion Science, 47 (2005) 515-535.


* D. Watkinson, M.T. Lewis, Desiccated storage of chloride-contaminated archaeological iron objects, Studies in Conservation, 50 (2005) 241-252.

* D. Watkinson, M.R.T. Lewis, The role of beta FeOOH in the corrosion of archaeological iron, in: P.B. Vandiver, J.L. Mass, A. Murray (Eds.) Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology VII, (2005) pp. 103-114.

* Rimmer, M. and Q. Wang, Assessing the effects of alkaline desalination treatments for archaeological iron using scanning electron microscopy, The British Museum Technical Research Bulletin 4: 79-86 (2010)

* Rimmer, M. and D. Watkinson, Residues from alkaline sulphite treatment and their potential effect on the corrosion of archaeological iron, in Metal 2010: Interim Meeting of the International Council of Museums Committee for Conservation Metal Working Group, October 11-15 2010, Charleston, South Carolina, USA, ed. P. Mardikian, C. Chemello, C. Watters, and P. Hull, Clemson University, Charleston, SC, 16-23 (2011)

Cu based metals

* E. Angelini, F. Rosalbino, S. Grassini, G.M. Ingo, T. de Caro, Simulation of corrosion processes of buried archaeological bronze artefacts
Corrosion of Metallic Heritage Artefacts: Investigation, Conservation and prediction of long-tem behaviour
, ISSN 1354-5116, European Federation of Corrosion Pub., Woodhead Pub. Lim., Cambridge, 2007; N. 48, pp. 203-217 ISBN: 1-84569-239-X

* C. Chiavari, K. Rahmouni, H. Takenouti, S. Joiret, P. Vermaut, L. Robbiola, Composition and electrochemical properties of natural patinas of outdoor bronze monuments, Electrochimica Acta, 52 (2007) 7760-7769.

* P. Dillmann, G. Béranger, P. Piccardo, H. Mathiesen, Corrosion of metallic heritage artefacts: Investigation, conservation and prediction of long term behaviour (EFC 48), Woodhead publishing, Cambridge, 2007.

* S. Goidanich, A. Balbo, C. Chiavari, C. Martini, L. Toniolo, D. Matera, C. Monticelli , Corrosion inhibitors for the conservation of bronzes and gilded bronzes exposed to the atmosphere, Metal 2010, Charleston South Carolina, USA, 11-15 October 2010.

* K. Leyssens, A. Adriaens, C. Degrigny, E. Pantos, Evaluation of corrosion potential measurements as a means to monitor the storage and stabilization processes of archaeological copper-based artifacts, Analytical Chemistry, 78 (2006) 2794-2801.

* P. Piccardo, R. Amendola, M.R. Rinasco, M.G. Ienco, G. Pellati, E. Stagno, T. Pirlo, DEVELOPMENT OF THE LIGURIAN METALLURGICAL ACTIVITY: THE IRON IN STURA VALLEY FROM XIV TO VIII CENTURY, Metallurgia Italiana, (2008) 27-36.

* M.R. Pinasco, M.G. Ienco, P. Piccardo, G. Pellati, E. Stagno, Metallographic approach to the investigation of metallic archaeological objects, Annali Di Chimica, 97 (2007) 553-574.

* G. Spoto, E. Ciliberto, G.C. Allen, C.M. Younes, P. Piccardo, M.R. Pinasco, E. Stagno, M.G. Ienco, R. Maggi, Chemical and structural properties of ancient metallic artefacts: multitechnique approach to study of early bronzes, British Corrosion Journal, 35 (2000) 43-47.

* A. Adriaens, M. Dowsett, G. Jones, K. Leyssens, S. Nikitenko, An in-situ X-ray absorption spectroelectrochemistry study of the response of artificial chloride corrosion layers on copper to remedial treatment, Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 24 (2009) 62-68.

* G.M. Ingo, T. De Caro, C. Riccucci, E. Angelini, S. Grassini, S. Balbi, P. Bernardini, D. Salvi, L. Bousselmi, A. Cilingiroglu, M. Gener, V.K. Gouda, O. Al Jarrah, S. Khosroff, Z. Mahdjoub, Z. Al Saad, W. El-Saddik, P. Vassiliou, Large scale investigation of chemical composition, structure and corrosion mechanism of bronze archeological artefacts from Mediterranean basin, Applied Physics a-Materials Science & Processing, 83 (2006) 513-520.

* E. Angelini, S. Grassini, G. Solorzano, G.D. Campos, T. De Caro, Integrated approach to the characterization and conservation of artefacts of the Brazilian colonial period, Applied Physics a-Materials Science & Processing, 83 (2006) 485-491.


* E. Rocca, F. Mirambet, J. Steinmetz, Study of ancient lead materials: A gallo-roman sarcophagus - contribution of the electrolytic treatment to its restoration, Journal of Materials Science, 39 (2004) 2767-2774.

* K. V. De Wael, M. De Keersmaecker, M. Dowsett, D. Walker, P.A. Thomas, A. Adriaens, Electrochemical deposition of dodecanoate on lead in view of an environmentally safe corrosion inhibition, Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, 14 (2010) 407-413.


* Gentaz L., Lombardo T., Loisel L., Chabas A., Verità M., Vallotto M., Early stage of weathering of medieval-like potash-lime model-glass: evaluation of key factors, Environmental Sciences and Pollution Research, DOI: 10.1007/s11356-010-0370-7.

* Lombardo T., C. Loisel, L. Gentaz, A. Chabas, M. Verità and I. Pallot-Frossard, Long term assessment atmospheric decay of stained glass windows, Corrosion Engineering Sciences and Technology, in press. DOI:

* M. Melcher, M. Schreiner, K. Kreislova, Artificial weathering of model glasses with medieval compositions - an empirical study on the influence of particulates, Phys. Chem. Glasses-Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. Part B, 49 (2008) 346-356.

* C. Messal, T. Gerber, G. Ballin, Biodeterioration on oxidic glasses part II: Biocorrosive reasons for appearance of Glaspest of antique glasses like Mecklenburger Waldglas, Mater. Corros., 50 (1999) 166-172.

Protection, monitoring

* F. Palumbo, R. d'Agostino, F. Fracassi, S. Laera, A. Milella, E. Angelini, S. Grassini, On Low Pressure Plasma Processing for Metal Protection, Plasma Process and Polymers, 2009, 6, pp. S684-S689

* E. Angelini, S. Grassini, D. Mombello, A. Neri, M. Parvis, G. Perrone, Plasma modified POF sensors for in situ environmental monitoring of museum indoor environments, Applied Physics A - Materials science and processing, 2010, published on line, DOI 10.1007/s00339-010-5691-3

* E. Rocca, F. Mirambet, Sodium carboxylates used to protect metallic artefacts, Actualite Chimique, (2007) 65-70.

* A. Adriaens, M. Dowsett, Time resolved spectroelectrochemistry studies for protection of heritage metals, Surface Engineering, 24 (2008) 84-89.

* Dubus M., Kouril M., Nguyen T.-P., Prosek T., Saheb M., Tate J., Monitoring copper and silver corrosion in different museum environments by electrical resistance measurement, Studies in Conservation 55 (2), p. 121-133, 2010.

* Prosek T., Kouril M., Hilbert L. R., Degres Y., Blazek V., Thierry D., Hansen M. Ø., Real time corrosion monitoring in the atmosphere using automated battery driven corrosion loggers, Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology 43 (2), p. 129-133, 2008.

* Kouril M., Prosek T., Degres Y., Thierry D., Doubravova K., Performance of automated system for real time monitoring of atmospheric corrosion, Paper No. 1240, Eurocorr 2008, Edinburgh, U.K., September 7-11, 2008.

* Prosek T., Thierry D., Kouril M., Degres Y., Automated corrosion loggers for corrosion monitoring in the atmosphere, Proc. of CORROSION, Paper No. 08296, NACE, New Orleans, USA, March 16-20, 2008.

* Dubus M., Prosek T., Tate J., Aucouturier M., Low corrosive environments in cultural heritage: interpretation of field studies, Proc. of Museum Microclimates, Conference on Preventive Conservation, The National Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark, November 19-23, 2007.